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But Indian constitution, like constitutions everywhere is not a self- http://www. spicesinlaris.ml Download Constitution of india in urdu pdf: spicesinlaris.ml?file= constitution+of+india+in+urdu+pdf Read Online Constitution of. Index to the Constitution Of India (Urdu). Foreword · Aain e Hind Ke Mazaameen Ki Fehrist · Contents of the Constitution of India (Urdu).
Note that the Act was adopted in English and Hindi. Language provisions in the Constitution of the Indian Union Adopted January 26, Article 29 Protection of interests of minorities 1 Any section of the citizens residing in the territory of India or any part thereof having a distinct language, script or culture of its own shall have the right to conserve the same.
Article 30 Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions 1 All minorities, whether based on religion or language, shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice. Article Language to be used in Parliament 1 Notwithstanding anything in Part XVII, but subject to the provisions of article business in Parliament shall be transacted in Hindi or in English: Provided that the Chairman of the Council of States or Speaker of the House of the People, or person acting as such, as the case may be, may permit any member who cannot adequately express himself in Hindi or in English to address the House in his mother-tongue.
The form of numerals to be used for the official purposes of the Union shall be the international form of Indian numerals.
Constitution of India (Full Text)
Article Commission and Committee of Parliament on official language 1 The President shall, at the expiration of five years from the commencement of this Constitution and thereafter at the expiration of ten years from such commencement, by order constitute a Commission which shall consist of a Chairman and such other members representing the different languages specified in the Eighth Schedule as the President may appoint, and the order shall define the procedure to be followed by the Commission.
Article Official language or languages of a State Subject to the provisions of articles and , the Legislature of a State may by law adopt any one or more of the languages in use in the State or Hindi as the Language or Languages to be used for all or any of the official purposes of that State; Provided that, until the Legislature of the State otherwise provides by law, the English language shall continue to be used for those official purposes within the State for which it was being used immediately before the commencement of this Constitution.
Article Official language for communication between one State and another or between a State and the Union The language for the time being authorised for use in the Union for official purposes shall be the official language for communication between one State and another State and between a State and the Union: Provided that if two or more States agree that the Hindi language should be the official language for communication between such States, that language may be used for such communication.
Article Special provision relating to language spoken by a section of the population of a State On a demand being made in that behalf the President may, if he is satisfied that a substantial proportion of the population of a State desire the use of any language spoken by them to be recognised by that state, direct that such language shall also be officially recognised throughout that State or any part thereof for such purpose as he may specify.
Article Special procedure for enactment of certain laws relating to language During the period of fifteen years from the commencement of this Constitution, no Bill or amendment making provision for the language to be used for any of the purposes mentioned in clause 1 of article shall be introduced or moved in either House of Parliament without the previous sanction of the President, and the President shall not give his sanction to the introduction of any such Bill or the moving of any such amendment except after he has taken into consideration the recommendations of the Commission constituted under clause 1 of article and the report of the Committee constituted under clause 4 of that article.
The present notion among some Muslims about this dispute is that Hindus abandoned the Urdu language, whereas some Hindus claim that Urdu was artificially created during Muslim rule. Hindi is a literary register of the Hindustani language, derived from the Khariboli dialect of the Hindi languages. Although the need to have a language for Hindus developed in the s, the irrevocable momentum of the Hindi language movement occurred around Urdu is a name derived from the Turkic word ordu army or orda.
When the Turco-Persian Mughals who invaded the Indian subcontinent made camps, the colloquial Persian spoken by the soldiers, known as the "language of the camp", or " Zaban-i-Ordu ", became gradually more and more Indianised, as they themselves settled and married into the local communities, until the dialect they spoke was readily intelligible to the native Hindu population.
The last few decades of the nineteenth century witnessed the eruption of the Hindi—Urdu controversy in the United Provinces present-day Uttar Pradesh , then known as "the North-Western Provinces and Oudh ".
Hindi movements advocating the growth of and official status for Devanagari were established in Northern India. This, consequently, led to the development of Urdu movements defending Urdu's official status; Syed Ahmed Khan was one of its noted advocates.
In , the government issued a decree granting symbolic equal status to both Hindi and Urdu, which was opposed by Muslims and received with jubilation by Hindus. Deploring this Hindu-Muslim divide, Gandhi proposed re-merging the standards, using either Devanagari or Urdu script, under the traditional generic term Hindustani.
Bolstered by the support of the Indian National Congress and various leaders involved in the Indian Independence Movement , Hindi, in the Devanagari script, along with English, replaced Urdu as the official language of India during the institution of the Indian constitution in The main cause of this divide may be attributed to the aspirations of both communities Hindu and Muslim to spread their cultural views, which became open contention during Indian independence.
Muslims have mostly looked towards their Muslim Ummah for cultural inspiration whereas Hindus generally get inspiration from the ancient cultures such as that of the Vedic. During the rule of Muslims in the subcontinent, often having been Turkic and Afghan , a number of people who converted to Islam readily adopted aspects of the culture of the Turko-Afghan conquerors and rulers brought with them.
Persian at that time was considered a prestigious and important language in many parts of Islamic world like Central Asia, which they thus brought with them. The founders of Islamic rule in India were from different ethnic backgrounds viz.
Turks, Mongols, Arabs, Iranians, Afghans, etc. In general, from its earliest days foreign Muslim culture was imported and patronised in the subcontinent by Turks and Afghans, laying the firm basis for what would, eventually, develop further under the Mughals. With the passage of time things like Sanskrit language, Dhoti , Ayurveda etc.
As the Muslim rule spread in the northern subcontinent, Hindustani interacted with various vernaculars and introduced Persian and Arabic words into local languages and absorbed local vocabulary, and over a period of time developed into a distinct spoken language. Urdu in the Persian script became the language of the courts of Muslim rulers during the eighteenth century.
It developed from the Khariboli dialect of the Delhi area with an infusion of words from Arabic and Persian. The modern vocabulary is derived from Persian, Arabic and Sanskrit, together with Prakrit. Several factors contributed to the increasing divergence of Hindi and Urdu.
Constitution Day (India)
In time, Hindustani written in Perso-Arabic script also became a literary language with an increasing body of literature written in the 18th and 19th century. A division developed gradually between Hindus who chose to write Hindustani in Devanagari script and Muslims and some Hindus who chose to write the same in Urdu script.
The development of Hindi movements in the late nineteenth century further contributed to this divergence. Sumit Sarkar notes that in the 18th and the bulk of the 19th century, "Urdu had been the language of polite culture over a big part of north India, for Hindus quite as much as Muslims". He gives the example of the author Premchand who wrote mainly in Urdu till , until he found it difficult to publish in the language.
Professor Paul R.
The Hindi-Urdu controversy by its very bitterness demonstrates how little the objective similarities between language groups matter when people attach subjective significance to their languages. Willingness to communicate through the same language is quite a different thing from the mere ability to communicate.
In , the British East India company replaced Persian with local vernacular in various provinces as the official language of government offices and of the lower courts.
Constitution of Pakistan
However, in the northern regions of the Indian subcontinent, Urdu in Urdu script was chosen as the replacement for Persian, rather than Hindi in the Devanagari script. Why exactly this decision was taken is unclear. The most immediate reason for the controversy is believed to be the contradictory language policy in North India in the s.
Although the then government encouraged both Hindi and Urdu as a medium of education in school, it discouraged Hindi or Nagari script for official purposes. This policy gave rise to conflict between students educated in Hindi or Urdu for the competition of government jobs, which eventually took on a communal form.
In a Memorandum on court characters written in , he accused the early Muslim rulers of India for forcing them to learn Persian. In , Madan Mohan Malaviya published a collection of documents and statements titled Court character and primary education in North Western Provinces and Oudh , in which, he made a compelling case for Hindi. They submitted memorials signed by 67, people to the Education Commission in several cities.
They also argued that Urdu script made court documents illegible, encouraged forgery and promoted the use of complex Arabic and Persian words. Organisations such as Anjuman Taraqqi-e-Urdu were formed for the advocacy of Urdu. They also argued that the Urdu language originated in India, asserted that Urdu could also be spoken fluently by most of the people and disputed the assertion that official status of language and script is essential for the spread of education.
Communal violence broke out as the issue was taken up by firebrands. By the word nation I only mean Hindus and Muslims and nothing else. We Hindus and Muslims live together under the same soil under the same government. Our interest and problems are common and therefore I consider the two factions as one nation.
Shakespeare, the governor of Banaras , after the language controversy heated up, he said "I am now convinced that the Hindus and Muslims could never become one nation as their religion and way of life was quite distinct from one another. In the last three decades of the 19th century the controversy flared up several times in North-Western provinces and Oudh.
The Hunter commission, appointed by the Government of India to review the progress of education, was used by the advocates of both Hindi and Urdu for their respective causes.
Hindi and Urdu continued to diverge both linguistically and culturally.
Culturally Urdu came to be identified with Muslims and Hindi with Hindus. This wide divergence in the s was deplored by Gandhi who exhorted the re-merging of both Hindi and Urdu naming it Hindustani written in both Nagari and Persian scripts. It has been argued that the Hindi—Urdu controversy sowed the seeds for Muslim nationalism in India. Some also argued that Syed Ahmad had expressed separatist views long before the controversy developed. Because of linguistic purism and its orientation towards the pre-Islamic past, Hindi and especially its standard literary form has removed many Persian, Arabic and Turkic loanwords and replaced them with borrowings from Sanskrit that is, from its own ancestral form.
Conversely, Urdu retains the Perso-Arabic words that were introduced into the Khariboli dialect during Muslim rule and in formal settings employs far more Perso-Arabic words than in vernacular Khariboli. In April , the colonial Government of the North-Western Provinces issued an order granting equal official status to both Nagari and Perso-Arabic scripts.
However, the order was more symbolic in that it did not provision exclusive use of Nagari script. Perso-Arabic remained dominant in North-Western provinces and Oudh as the preferred writing system until independence.
Rajagopalachari , chief minister of Madras Presidency introduced Hindi as a compulsory language in secondary school education though he later relented and opposed the introduction of Hindi during the Madras anti-Hindi agitation of The main cause of this divide may be attributed to the aspirations of both communities Hindu and Muslim to spread their cultural views, which became open contention during Indian independence.
Front Cover. Measuring and analyzing your curation will help you to understand what your audience is looking for and how to improve your performance. Although the then government encouraged both Hindi and Urdu as a medium of education in school, it discouraged Hindi or Nagari script for official purposes.
Queensland Health is committed to providing services aimed at achieving good health and well-being for all Queenslanders. Dosen Pengampu dan Tim Asisten. People used to ask me that I had created a. Original text of the Preamble of the Indian constitution.
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