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Christiane Nord. Text Analysis in Translation. Theory, Method, and Didactic Application of a Model for Translation-Oriented Text Analysis. Translated from the . The first two parts, the analysis of external and internal factors, are based on Christiane Nord‟s model of text analysis in translation (). The other two parts. Christiane Nord Equivalence and adaptation The concept of translation proper hinges on equivalence, and equivalence . Source-text functions and target-text functions Parting from a functional analysis, the translator tries to find out the.
This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Google Scholar Armstrong, Guyda. Modern Language Review 1 : 40— Google Scholar Ascherson, Neal.
London Review of Books, 6 November. Google Scholar Baker, Mona. Target 12 2 : — CrossRef Google Scholar ———. Translation and Conflict: A Narrative Account. London and New York: Routledge. Google Scholar ———. Reframing Conflict in Translation. Social Semiotics 17 2 : — The Translator 16 2 : — In Translation, Resistance, Activism, ed. Maria Tymoczko, 23— Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press. Google Scholar Bakhtin, Mikhail.
Christiane Nord. Text Analysis in Translation. Theory, Method, and
Caryl Emerson and Michael Holoquist, ed. Austin: University of Texas Press. Google Scholar Baldo, Michela. Google Scholar Barthes, Roland. Historical Discourse. Peter Wexler. In Structuralism: A Reader, ed. Michael Lane, — London: Jonathan Cape. Google Scholar Bassnett, Susan. The Translator as Writer.
Berlin: LIT Verlag.
Text Analysis in Translation- Nord
Google Scholar Bathrick, David. Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press. Google Scholar Benford, Robert D. Annual Review of Sociology — The Task of the Translator. Harry Zohn. Marcus Bullock and Michael W. Jennings, — Cambridge and London: Harvard University Press. Google Scholar Bennett, W. Lance, and Murray Edelman. Toward a New Political Narrative. Journal of Communication 35 4 : — The Location of Culture.
Google Scholar Biendarra, Anke S. Berlin and Boston: de Gruyter. Stylistic Approaches to Translation.
Manchester: St. Manchester: St Jerome. A Narrative Account of the Babels vs. The Translator 14 1 : 21— The Rhetoric of Fiction. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Meta 56 1 : 20— The Narrative Construction of Reality. Critical Inquiry 18 1 : 1— Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
Google Scholar Bush, Peter. The Writer of Translations. In The Translator as Writer, eds. Susan Bassnett, and Peter Bush, 23— London and New York: Continuum. The translations quoted above have taken account of this aspect. Dedecius ed.
Culture-specific norms determine not only the frequency but also the form of metatextual elements. Comparing the average length of the titles and title-genres represented in the Corpora we find that they do not differ very much in the four cultures. Evidently, the optimum length of a book title that is, a simple title or the main part of a title-subtitle combination is between three and four words.
Longer titles are made easier to remember by using original structures, catch words, or a rhythmical pattern. Der Palmweintrinker. Text Analysis in Translation. Texto base — texto meta. Un modelo. The subtitle should have been omitted altogether in the English translation because it is far too long and too complicated. In Spanish, a literal translation of the main title would not be possible without exceeding by far the conventional length limits. Moreover, the pattern consisting of a nominal phrase and a prepositional phrase is only third in frequency From a translational point of view, it is mainly the cultural affiliation of the referent and, consequently, the aspect of cultural distance which poses comprehension problems in translation.
We can distinguish several subfunctions to the referential function, such as information on the topic or content of the co-text thematie reference, e. Jane Austen: Pride and Prejudice , information on linguistic characteristics of the co-text metalinguistic reference, e.
The following examples illustrate some of the translation problems connected with the referential function. El sonido y la furia — Fr. La bruit et la fureur — Germ.
Otra vuelta de tuerca — Germ. La piel de nuestros dientes — Germ. Wir sind noch einmal davon gekommen Intertextuality can be used as a means of obtaining several functions see Nord , By reproducing the-text surface rather literally, at least the Spanish and the French versions give rise to interpretations which do not have anything to do with those intended by the author.
This is even more true of the literal Spanish translations of the idioms quoted in the other two titles, which are absolutely nonsensical. Mbise: Blood on Our Land — Germ. Therefore, the title does not fully achieve its referential function.
Expressivity in titles can refer to the text referent as in Raymond Queneau: Pierrot mon petit , to the text itself e. Each evaluation has to be seen in its relationship with the culture-specific system of values it is based on. This is particularly important in cases where evaluations are only implied and not explicitly verbalized in the formulation of a title.
Documents Similar To Nord C Text Analysis in Translation
Memoirs of a Dutiful Daughter — Germ. Wo die wilden Kerle wohnen — Span. Maurice Sendak's title refers to a passage in the book where an angry mother calls her son a wild thing. In his dream, the little boy visits the Wild Things and finally becomes their king. A Very Easy Death — Germ.
Ein sanfter Tod The example illustrates two subcategories of the expressive function. The original title expresses an emotion of the dying person, whereas the English translation refers to an objective quality which might be judged from outside, e.
The advertising function is achieved either directly by poetic and rhetorical means e. Ballard: Memories of the Space Age , by alluding to familiar stories or myths as in F. The persuasive function is marked by metaphors as in T. Baldwin: Go, Tell It on the Mountain , etc. The appellative function depends mainly on the recipient. Example 7: a. Metrical patterns in the German corpus Jerome K. Jerome: Three Men in a Boat — Germ.
Drei Mann in einem Boot Jerome K. Jerome: Three Men on the Bummel — Germ. Schlecht gesehen, schlecht gesagt. Therefore, the translator of the Jerome titles prefers a metrical pattern to the reproduction of the intertextual relationship between the two titles Drei Mann vs. The German translation of the Beckett title is not appellative because it does not show any rhythmical consistency.
Assonance vs. Affront secret, secrete vengeance The French translations of these Spanish titles take account of the fact that Spanish conventions prefer assonances as one of very few poetic means of appellativity, whereas French titles are often made attractive by syntactical patterns.
A Farewell to Sartre The original does not need much appellativity because the author is well known to the French audience. The English and German translations use the relationship between Beauvoir and Sartre as an appellative element. The translations take account of this difference in poetic conventions.
If we take the view that textuality is not a mere structural property of an utterance but primarily a feature of its functions and use in communication, titles have to be considered as texts.
Titles meet the textuality standards established by Beaugrande and Dressler , 79 , representing their own forms of cohesion, coherence, informativity, intentionality, acceptability, situationality, and intertextuality, which are different from those of the corresponding co-text. Titles can be intended to achieve six communicative functions, four of which referentiality, expressivity, appellativity, and phatic function can be universally assigned to all texts and text-types see Nord a, The other two metatextuality and distinctive function can be observed as specific functions of particular text-types: the distinctive function is typical of names or labels, and the metatextual function is found in metatexts such as text commentaries, reviews, abstracts, summaries, etc.
Therefore, titles are not just texts but typical texts presenting a complex hierarchy of communicative functions. In spite of their complex functionality, titles present rather simple syntactic- semantic structures. These would be three different varieties of the 4 appellative function. At any rate, the three titles are designed to distinguish the books from any other existing ones.
This is the distinctive function which is common to book titles and proper names. After finding out the intended or possible functions of the source title, the translator would have to decide which of these functions, and in what hierarchical order, could or should be aimed at by the formulation of the target title. And this hierarchy of intended target functions sets the guidelines for the translation process. In the light of these considerations, the translation of Aldous Huxley's Brave New World another Shakespeare quotation by Le meilleur des mondes a quotation from Voltaire is no 'better' or 'more equivalent' than the translation of Marcel Proust's A la recherche du temps perdu which is no quotation by Remembrance of Things Past Shakespeare again simply because it gives a target-literature quotation for a source-literature quotation.
Any translation criticism would have to take into account that perhaps the poetic function of the Proust title is more easily achieved in the target culture by alluding to a poetic text than by merely reproducing the semantic content or the syntactic structure of the original.
And these considerations can easily be applied to any other problems arising in the translation of other text types which are of more frequent use in translator training. In this vein, the framework of a functional approach would therefore allow any transfer procedure which leads to a functional target text, that is, cultural adaptation, paraphrase, expansion, reduction, modulation, transposition, substitution, loanword, calque, literal translation or even omission see also Hermans The skopos rule is a very general rule which does not account for specific conventions prevalent in a particular culture community.
It might even be paraphrased as "The end justifies the means", and this would indeed mean that the translator is free to choose any translation skopos for a particular source text.
The principle of loyalty, which I have introduced into the functional approach Nord , , sets limits to the variety of possible translation skopoi, obliging the translator to consider the author's communicative in- tention s and the readers' expectations towards a text marked as a 'translation'. As a principle, loyalty is not specified in the general model; what it really means for the translator in a particular translation task is specified by the culture-specific translational conventions prevailing in the culture-communities involved.
Translational conventions which ask for 'literal translation' have to be taken into account as seriously as translational conventions which allow an adaptation of some or all text dimensions to target-culture standards.
But the 5 translator cannot just 'override' the expectations of his or her partners in the cooperative activities implied in any intercultural text transfer. If there is any possibility of achieving the same function s by the target text in its prospective target-culture situation, the translator would be free to decide on the transfer procedures which may become necessary, and adaptation is one of them.
The English version, however, substitutes the emotional function of douce by the evaluative function of easy. Whether a death is easy or not can be judged from outside, from the doctor's point of view, whereas douce describes the feelings of the dying person.
Thus, the English title sounds very matter-of-fact which is in part also due to the nominality of the phrase and would probably not achieve the same emotive function as the original. But text functions need not necessarily be the same for the source and the target text.
For French readers, the Beauvoir title does not contain any explicit or implicit reference to the fact that the book is a fictional text; for them, this information is implied by the author's name, who is known as a writer of fiction.
For English readers, this may not be as evident. As we see, there is a shift of functions in the target title in this case. That is, the information about the genre which in the source culture is given by the author's name is shifted to the title in the target-language formulation. But there may also be cases where the target text has to achieve a function which is not vital for the source text or vice versa.
Again, we can take titles as a case in point.
If the author is a famous writer in the source culture, but not known as yet in the target culture, the original title does not need to achieve an appellative function, whereas the translated title would have to attract the prospective readers' attention. I will not discuss here whether the suggested versions have been the best or the only way to achieve an appellative function in the target titles; what I would like to stress, however, is the fact that adaptations often are the only way to ensure that a translation 'works' in the target-culture situation it is produced for.
The functional approach in translation teaching Choosing the functional approach for translation practice will have considerable impact on translation teaching or translator training. In 'normal' intralingual communication, we know the situation in which and for which we produce an utterance or a text.
In the traditional translation class, however, teachers often ask the students to translate the source text 'as such', that is, without specifying the situation or purpose the translation is needed for.
Therefore, trainee translators commit grammatical mistakes even in their own native language, which they never would have made in spontaneous intralingual communication. Experience shows that when the prospective communicative situation is clearly defined, linguistic errors are committed less frequently. Therefore, a commission or assignment which defines the intended function or functions of the target text can be expected to reduce the number of linguistic errors or faults in students' translations.
This procedure makes it easier for the trainee translator to develop translation strategies for the solution of a particular translation problem which are designed for the translation of the whole text and not for individual units such as words or phrases.
This means: In a first step, a particular translation problem for instance, a play on words is analysed with regard to its function in the text and in the target situation 1. The analysis leads to a decision whether the translation has to be adapted to target-culture norms and conventions or whether it should reproduce source-culture conventions used in the source text 2.
This decision sets limits to the range of linguistic means to be used 3 , from which the translator chooses the ones which fit into the specific context, such as text-type, register, style, etc.Nonetheless, the existing inventories of titles in a particular culture clearly show what readers are exposed to — and what it is that shapes their expectations.
Meta 48 1—2 : — After finding out the intended or possible functions of the source title, the translator would have to decide which of these functions, and in what hierarchical order, could or should be aimed at by the formulation of the target title. New York: Columbia University Press. A Very Easy Death — Germ.
Google Scholar Kovala, Urpo. In this case, it will be less easy to find plausible and intersubjective reasons for their functionality and consistency, which makes the task more difficult for the trainee.
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