Written communication will cover planning, structures, and stylistic issues. The students will learn to write memos and letters, proposals, short and long reports. Business and Technical English Writing (ENG). Handouts (pdf) / Powerpoint Slides (PPTs). Handouts / Power Point Slides. Lessons () (pdf Format). Business and Technical English Writing (ENG). Handouts | Lectures | Contents | Books. Handouts / Power Point Slides. Lessons () (pdf Format).

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Download VU Business and Technical English Writing - ENG Lectures Handouts. Business and Technical English Writing - ENG spicesinlaris.ml VUTube. ENG Complete Handouts 1 to 45 lectures in signle pdf file. ENGBusiness and Technical English complete handouts Views: . Attachments: ENG_handouts_1_pdf, MB.

Better emphasis As it approached the speed of sound, the airplane became very difficult to control. Example: Little emphasis Candidates should be motivated and should have interest in dynamic and static testing of material, and have those prerequisites and others. Better emphasis Prerequisites in candidates should include expertise in dynamic and static testing of material.

Some of them include headings, tabulations, itemization, line charts, pie charts, italics, indentation colored capitals or even wide or short margins.

Checklist: Choose as precise or as concrete a word as possible. Select words that have high sense of appropriateness for the reader. Opt for familiar words, the ones that are not pretences. Checklist: Limit the average sentence to 17 to 20 words. Insert no more than one main idea into a sentence.

Arrange words so that the main idea occurs early in a sentence. Courtesy : True courtesy involves being aware not only of the perspectives of others, but also their feelings.

Knowing your audience allows you to use statements of courtesy. It is not merely politeness with mechanical insertion of please and thank you, although applying socially accepted manners is a form of courtesy. Rather it is politeness that grows out of respect and concern for others. Suggestions: Be sincerely tactful, thoughtful and appreciative. Use expressions that show respect.

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Chose nondiscriminatory expressions. Be sincerely tactful, thoughtful and appreciative: Tact Though very few people are intentionally abrupt or blunt, these negative traits are a common cause of discourtesy. Sometimes they stem from a mistaken idea of conciseness, sometimes from negative personal attitudes etc.

Example: Tactless, blunt Stupid letter; I did not understand any of it. More tactful Its my understanding.. Example: Tactless, Blunt Clearly you did not read my latest fax.

More Tactful Sometimes my wording is not precise, let me try again. Example: Tactless, Blunt I rewrote that letter three times; the point was clear. More Tactful I am sorry the point was not clear; here is another version. Thoughtfulness and Appreciation: The traits help build goodwill. Be generous in appreciating others good performances. Her recommendations might be read by her supervisor Mr. Nadeem, who will want to know what measures he will have to take in order to follow her recommendations.

The vice president of finance, Mr. Altaf, will want to verify the cost estimates that Naila includes. The director of downloading, Mr. Chauhan, will need to know about the new equipment he will need to order.

The head of personnel, Miss Sara, will want to learn whether she needs to write any new job descriptions. And lastly the kitchen staff to assure them that their new work assignment will treat them fairly. So, writing for such a large and diverse audience requires skills that are not needed when writing only to your instructor.

Types of Communication People at work write different communication than those of written at schools. Instead of term papers and exams, they write such things as: Memos Business letters Instructions Project proposals Progress Reports Each on-the-job communication has its own conventions.

To write successfully at work, you will need to learn how to construct these kinds of communication. Ownership of a Writers Work Ownership of a writers work is very important. While at school your communication only belongs to you, at work however, your communication will belong only partly to you. They will belong to your employer. What you write at work represents not only you but also your department or your employer.

If you write a proposal, your employer will get the contact or lose it. Two other situations are fairly common at work. Employees often work on committees that write reports, proposals, and other documents collaboratively. The final version cannot be accredited to only one individual. People often write communications that are sent under someone elses name.

It is common for departmental reports to be signed by the Head of Department, even though they are written by staff members. To succeed on the job, you will need to learn to write under the circumstances in which your employer claims ownership of your communication.

It is absolutely essential to think constantly about your readers. Think about what they want from you and why. Think about the ways you want to affect them. Think about the ways they will react to what you have to say. Think about them as if they were right there in front of you while you talked together.

The communication must affect in specific ways the individuals you are addressing. Example: If Nailas proposal of modifying the hospital kitchen explains the problems created by the present organization in a way that her readers find compelling, if it addresses the kind of objections that her readers will raise to her recommendations, if it reduces the readers sense of being threatened by having a new employee suggest improvements to a system that they set up, then it may succeed.

On the other hand, if Nailas proposal leaves the readers confused, and fail to persuade them it will make Naila seem like a pushy person who has overstepped her appropriate role. As you write in a professional environment, you need to remember three things: 1. Readers create meaning. Readers' responses are sharpened by situation. Readers react on a moment-by-moment basis. Instead of receiving the message, people interact with the message to create meaning.

While reading, we build larger structures of knowledge from small fragments of sentences. These structures are not the words we have just read but our own creation 2.

Responses to a communication are shaped by a total situation surrounding the message. Such factors as the purpose of reading the readers perceptions of the writers aims, their personal interest and stake in the subject discussed, past relations with the writer.

On job people react to each part of the memo, report or other business communication as soon as they come to it. Exercises: 1. Imagine the situation in which you will write on different jobs.

For each, explain what purpose you will have for writing and what purpose your readers will have for reading. Find a communication written by someone who has the kind of job you want.

Explain its purpose from various points of view of both the writer and the readers. Describe some of the writing strategies the writer has used to achieve those purposes. Find a piece of writing that you believe to be ineffective. You might look for an unclear set of instructions or an unpersuasive advertisement of any business of technical products. Write a brief analysis of three or four reading moments in which your interaction with the text is in a way that inhibits the authors desired results.

Now analyze an effective piece of writing. This time, write about three or four reading moments in which you interact with the text in a way that helps the author bring about the desired result. He has analyzed a group of pistons that broke when used in an experimental automobile engine.

His skillful analysis is of no use unless he communicates the results to someone else, such as the engineer who must redesign the pistons. Oral Presentations Oral presentations can be formal or informal, depending upon their explicit and implicit purposes and the delivery situation. An oral presentation can be almost any report type, such as a design review, a proposal, or a conference talk. Whatever the specific type, however, an effective oral presentation is carefully planned with your objectives in mind and pays close attention to the demands of your audience.

Effective oral communication is a combination of many skills: Outlining and planning Preparing overheads or other display media Copyright Virtual University of Pakistan 11 Business and Technical English-ENG VU Rehearsing Delivery Formal and Informal Oral Reports An oral report may be delivered around a small table with just a few listeners or in a large auditorium to hundreds of people.

Formal Oral Reports are usually prepared well in advance of presentation and are therefore well rehearsed. Your manner of delivery is extremely important in a formal oral report situation. Formal oral reports may follow an outline similar to the parts of any formal written report and may be presented to an audience of one's peers or to an interested general or a mixed audience in a setting such as a large auditorium or hall.

Informal Oral Reports are generally characterized by small- group settings with a high degree of audience interaction and a relaxed manner of delivery and dress. Informal oral presentations can foster the free exchange of ideas and can be important for producing action items.

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Oral presentations in a professional environment generally fall into two categories: Informative Speaking Persuasive Speaking a. Informative Speaking Informative Speaking has audience learning as its primary goal. An informative speech may explain a concept, instruct an audience, demonstrate a process, or describe an event.

Persuasive Speaking Persuasive Speaking is used to influence what an audience thinks or does. Some of the goals of persuasive speaking include to: Reinforce the attitudes, beliefs, and values an audience already holds.

Inoculate an audience against counter persuasion. Change attitudes. Motivate an audience to act. Delivery Methods There are at least four methods for making an oral presentation: 1. Extempore 2. Impromptu 3.

Memorization 4. Reading Extempore In this method of delivery the thought is planned before starting to speak either in a few hurried minutes or in the course of long, elaborate and exacting preparation; but the exact wording is left to the moment of speaking. The extemporaneous method involves significant effort but results in a degree of quality that tells your audience that you care about them.

Doing your homework to fill in your knowledge gaps. The use of 3 x 5 cue cards or similar method to jog your memory on the specifics and keep your presentation on track. Impromptu The impromptu method is characterized by poor organization and incompleteness.

It tells the audience that you are indifferent about them. Memorization The memorization method is risky; you can lose your place or leave something out and, in a panic, you might revert to the impromptu method, resulting in disaster. Reading The drawback of reading is that when you read your speech, you're communicating with the text instead of the audience.

Novice speakers often believe that if they memorize their speeches by reading them over and over word for word; they'll be able to stand up and deliver the speech verbatim without reading. It's a great idea, but it just doesn't work. And if you practice by reading from a written manuscript, you will become so wedded to the paper that it is virtually impossible to break away from it.

You also lose most of the expressiveness and engaging body language that make speeches work in the first place. Preparation for the Presentation Irrespective of the method of delivery, the presenter must consider the following parameters in preparing for the presentation: Knowledge of the audience Knowledge of subject Use of time Rehearsal Personal appearance and grooming. Additionally, the preparation and use of visual aids is an important element of any effective presentation.

Knowledge of the Audience: Do not patronize your audience! Neither speak down nor speak up to your audience.

How much do they already know about your subject? Know the age level of the audience as well as its members' level of educational sophistication and special interests.

Business and Technical English Writing (ENG201)

Tailor your presentation accordingly. Knowledge of the Subject Whether you use notes, manuscript, or strictly memory, you must know your subject well. If gaps exist, fill them up! Use of Time and Rehearsal Time limits are to be observed! Even if no time limit is given, you should strive to do justice to your subject in as little time as possible, but not at the price of an incomplete presentation.

Personal Appearance: Your personal appearance affects your credibility. Informal clothing is rarely appropriate for a professional presentation. Pay significant attention to personal grooming. Delivering an Oral Presentation A well planned and well-structured presentation can almost be ineffective because of the bad presentation delivery.

Poise and Enthusiasm Be well prepared and strive for muscle control, alert attention, vibrant interest in the subject, and an eagerness to communicate. Avoid distracting mannerisms, but don't stand in a "frozen" position. Moving about, if not excessive, can accentuate your enthusiasm.

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Eye Contact During your presentation, try to make eye contact with most and if possible every person in the room. Avoid fastening your gazes on your notes, on your chart or screen, or on some point in space above the heads of your listeners. Use of Voice Don't speak too softly, too fast, or mumble! Your audience must be able to: Hear what you say Understand what you say d. Use of Pace Without adequate preparation, it is easy to become nervous and start rushing through a presentation.

Instead, use the pacing established during your many rehearsals. Making a Formal Presentation The material of your presentation should be concise, to the point and tell an interesting story. In addition to the obvious things like content and visual aids, the following are just as important as the audience will be subconsciously taking them in: Voice - how you say it is as important as what you say. Body Language - a subject in its own right and something about which much has been written and said.

In essence, your body movements express what your attitudes and thoughts really are. Appearance - first impressions influence the audience's attitudes to you. Dress appropriately for the occasion. As with most personal skills, oral communication cannot be taught. Instructors can only point the way.

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So as always, practice is essential, both to improve your skills generally and also to make the best of each individual presentation you make. What are the objectives of the talk? What are the main points you want to make? Make a list of these two things as your starting point. Write out the presentation in rough, just like a first draft of a written report.

Review the draft. You will find things that are irrelevant or superfluous - delete them. Check if the story is consistent and flows smoothly. If there are things you cannot easily express, possibly because of doubt about your understanding, it is better to leave them unsaid. Never read from a script. It is also unwise to have the talk written out in detail as a prompt sheet - the chances are you will not locate the thing you want to say amongst all the other text.

You should know most of what you want to say - if you don't then you should not be giving the talk! So prepare cue cards which have key words and phrases and possibly sketches on them. Postcards are ideal for this.

Don't forget to number the cards in case you drop them. Remember to mark on your cards the visual aids that go with them so that the right OHP or slide is shown at the right time. Rehearse your presentation - to yourself at first and then in front of some colleagues.

The initial rehearsal should consider how the words and the sequence of visual aids go together and how you will make effective use of your visual aids. Making Your Presentation Greet the audience for example, 'Good morning, ladies and gentlemen! Good presentations then follow this formula: tell the audience what you are going to tell them, at the end tell them what you have told them.

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Keep to the time allowed. If you can, keep it short. It's better to under-run than over-run. As a rule of thumb, allow two minutes for each general overhead transparency or Power Point slide you use, but longer for any that you want to use for developing specific points. However, the audience will get bored with something on the screen for more than 5 minutes, especially if you are not actively talking about it.

So switch the display off, or replace the slide with some form of 'wallpaper' such as a company logo. Stick to the plan for the presentation, don't be tempted to digress - you will eat up time and could end up in a dead-end with no escape!

Unless explicitly told not to, leave time for discussion - 5 minutes are sufficient to allow clarification of points. The session chairman may extend this if the questioning becomes interesting. At the end of your presentation ask if there are any questions - avoid being terse when you do this as the audience may find it intimidating i. It may come across as any questions? Delivery Guidelines: Speak clearly.

Don't shout or whisper - judge the acoustics of the room. Don't rush, or talk deliberately slowly.

Be natural - although not conversational. Deliberate pause at key points this has the effect of emphasizing the importance of a particular point you are making. Avoid jokes - always disastrous unless you are a natural expert. You can change your delivery method to make the presentation interesting. Speed, pitch of voice etc. Use your hands to emphasize points but don't indulge in too much hand waving. People can, over time, develop irritating habits. Ask colleagues occasionally what they think of your style.

Look at the audience as much as possible, but don't fix on an individual - it can be intimidating. Don't face the display screen behind you and talk to it. Other annoying habits include: Standing in a position where you obscure the screen. In fact, positively check for anyone in the audience who may be disadvantaged and try to accommodate them.Stroscio and D.

An oral presentation can be almost any report type, such as a design review, a proposal, or a conference talk. Establishing the Main Idea: If you need to use a slide twice, duplicate it. At this stage of recruiting, rsums are usually read by people who work in personal office.

Related titles. Poise and Enthusiasm Be well prepared and strive for muscle control, alert attention, vibrant interest in the subject, and an eagerness to communicate. Instead of asking Is this applicant capable? Rather it is politeness that grows out of respect and concern for others. Avoid distracting mannerisms, but don't stand in a "frozen" position.

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