Black Box Seminar - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. seminar report. Black Box Testing Seminar and PPT with pdf report: Black box is an electronics device used to record any instructions and specific aircraft performance parameters. A black box consist of FDR & CVR. Here we are giving you Black Box Testing Seminar and PPT with PDF report. Free download complete engineering seminar Black Box Seminar Report pdf.
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The intercom channel from the captains microphone is one of the primary inputs into the cockpit voice recorder. Anything the captain says into the microphone is recorded, including conversation with other crewmembers and radio communications.
If the captain chooses not to use the intercom to communicate with other members of the crew, it is possible some of the things said by the captain may not be recorded, or at least not recorded clearly.
First Officer The first officer FO is a required flight crewmember with secondincommand authority over the flight. As is true of the captain, the FO may or may not manipulate the flight controls at any given time, but always has an active role in the conduct of the flight. The intercom channel from the first officers microphone is one of the primary inputs into the cockpit voice recorder.
The first officer occupies the right seat in the cockpit. Similar to the arrangement available to the captain, anything the FO says into the FOs microphone will be recorded, including conversation with other flight crewmembers, public address announcements to passengers and radio communications.
But, conversation spoken directly to other crewmembers may not be recorded or not recorded clearly. Cockpit Area Microphone Early in the history of crash investigation when cockpit voice recorders became available, crash investigators discovered that significant amounts of useful information was not available to them if only the captain and first officer microphones were recorded.
The cockpit area microphone CAM is centrally located in the cockpit, not tied to an intercom channel, so that the sounds heard in the cockpit are available to crash investigators. The cockpit area microphone is one of the primary inputs into the cockpit voice recorder. The CAM picks up the sound of warning bells and chimes, landing gear lowering and retracting, certain flight control surfaces moving, engine noises, and any number of other sounds heard in the cockpit while in flight.
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It also picks up conversation, whether spoken directly between crewmembers or as they are using the intercom, although on the recordings this is often difficult or impossible to understand because the audio level of such conversations is similar to or not as loud as the ambient level of noise in the cockpit. Cabin Microphone Less common than the captains microphone, first officers microphone and cockpit area microphone, an aircraft may be equipped with one or more cabin microphones. These are usually found on larger aircraft or on the very newest aircraft.
The lead flight attendant may be stationed in a certain location. A cabin microphone may be found in that area. If installed, the cabin microphone s may be input s into the cockpit voice recorder. The sensors transmit data to the FDR through a digital data bus.
The rate at which an individual sensor produces data varies from continuous to once per second or longer, although most measurable data items do not need extremely fast sampling rates to give investigators sufficient information about that item.
Broad categories of data sources are as follows. For more specific regulatory requirements, see section II.
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Flight Situation This is information about the aeronautical or flying situation of the aircraft, such as heading, altitude, airspeed, vertical speed and angle of attack. Engine Condition This is information about the performance and condition of the engine, such as RPM of the propeller or fan, engine pressure ratio and oil temperature.
Flight Control Inputs This is information about what control inputs the pilots are making to cause the aircraft to do what it is doing, such as rudder pedal position, aileron control deflection, flap lever position and elevator control pressure. Flight Control Situation This is information about what the flight control surfaces are actually doing, as opposed to what the flight crew is trying to make them do through their flight control inputs, such as rudder deflection, aileron deflection, elevator deflection, trim tab position and flap deflection.
Environmental Situation This is information about the environment in which the aircraft is flying, such as outside air temperature, wind speed and direction, type of precipitation experienced rain, snow, sleet, etc. Even by recording the captains microphone, FOs microphone and CAM, some of the flight crews actions and communication relevant to crash investigation may be missed. Non-verbal gestures, such as a thumbs-up, can only be captured if there is a visual record of what happens in the cockpit.
Additionally, there are some displays showing information to the flight crew that are not usually recorded, such as the weather radar. Having a visual record of these otherwise un-recorded displays may provide important clues to accident investigators.
Video produces relatively a lot of data compared to flight data and voice. The volume of data depends largely upon such factors as whether the image is black-and-white or in color, the pixel resolution and the frame rate per second. The necessary frame rate is a matter of debate.
The goal of using cockpit video in the first place is to provide adequate crash investigation data, not to watch a 20 movie of the goings-on in the cockpit on a large home theatre system with surround sound. So, is it adequate to see maybe four frames per second, which makes the movements in the cockpit appear somewhat jerky, or do investigators need to see smooth movement at maybe thirty frames per second?
For the purpose of this thesis, this question can remain unanswered, although the answer does significantly impact the volume of information any Real-Time Flight Data Transmission System must handle.
It should be noted that a video image of flight instruments that are recorded by other means, such as the indication of airspeed, altitude or heading, is probably not very useful.
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Only in the case where the instrument fails to show the proper value would there be a need to have a video image of it, but the probability of this situation occurring is essentially zero. Therefore, seeing everything the flight crew sees isnt strictly necessary. One potential benefit of having cockpit video available is monitoring extremely unusual events in the cockpit.
It might be nice to actually see such things as a terrorist breaking into the cockpit, seizing control, threatening the flight crew, and so on. On the other hand, simply knowing that it happened may be good enough. United Airlines flight 93, the so-called fourth aircraft hijacked by terrorists on September 11, , which crashed in western Pennsylvania killing all souls on board, is a good example of an event where cockpit video may have answered many questions as to what went on aboard the aircraft.
While we generally know what happened in this case, the families of the passengers and crew, as well as the public at large, desire to know more.
For the purpose of this thesis, cockpit video is of interest as a source of a large volume of data that must be considered when designing a remote transmission system. Not every flying machine must have such a device. The two factors that determine whether an aircraft must have flight recorders are the size of the aircraft and the operating environment. In general, private flying, agricultural flying, flight instruction, corporate aviation, gliders, balloons and airships do not require flight recorders unless the flying is done in large which has a specific FAA definition or multiengine turbine-powered aircraft.
FAR Because FAR 91 applies to all aircraft and other sections of 14 CFR apply specifically to various types of forhire operations, the rules in Part 91 will most likely be superseded or added to by other rules, such as Part commuter and air taxi or air carrier. Examples include the charter of a small aircraft air taxi or a casino flying guests to their location commuter.
For large and multiengine turbine-powered aircraft operating under Part , FAR 22 The list is essentially the same as the list found in the air carrier regulations Part An understanding of the distinction between domestic, flag or supplemental carrier is not necessary for this thesis, but has to do with the size, schedule type and operating area of the air carrier operation.
For flight operations conducted under Part , FAR One hour of the oldest data may be erased for maintenance purposes and no record need be kept more than 60 days.
Time 2. Altitude 3. Airspeed 4. Vertical acceleration 5.
Heading of each radio transmission either to or from air traffic 6. Time control Pitch 7. Longitudinal acceleration Pitch trim position Control column or pitch control surface position Control wheel or lateral control surface position Rudder pedal or yaw control surface positionThrust of each Trailing edge flap or cockpit flap control position Leading edge flap or cockpit flap control position e FAR Pressure altitude 3.
Indicated airspeed 4. Heading -- primary flight crew reference if selectable, record discrete, true or magnetic 5. Normal acceleration Vertical Pitch 6. Autopilot engagement status Longitudinal acceleration control Pitch input 24 d FAR Lateral control input Rudder pedal Lateral acceleration surface position or parameters of paragraph a 82 Pitch trim of this section if currently recorded Trailing edge flap or cockpit flap control selection except when parameters of paragraph a 85 of this section apply Leading edge flap or cockpit flap control selection except when parameters of paragraph a 86 of this section apply Each Thrust reverser position or equivalent for propeller airplane Ground spoiler position or speed brake selection except when parameters of paragraph a 87 of this section apply Outside or total air temperature Radio altitude when an information source is installed Elevation Marker beacon Master warning Angle of attack when information source is installed Hydraulic pressure low each system Ground speed when an information source is installed Ground proximity warning system Landing gear position or landing gear cockpit control selection Drift angle when an information source is installed Wind speed and direction when an information source is installed Latitude and longitude when an information source is installed Windshear when an information source is installed Additional engine parameters as designated in Appendix M of this part Traffic alert and collision avoidance system DME 1 and 2 Nav 1 and 2 selected frequency 25 Black Box.
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Black Box Testing Seminar Report with ppt and pdf
Full Name Comment goes here. Are you sure you want to Yes No. Naksir Udin. Show More. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide.Similar to the magnetic-tape recorders, solid-state recorders also record over old material.
Randomized search heuristics are currently very popular in general machine learning in the form of Bayesian optimization. Like this presentation? Each additional parameter that is recorded by the FDR gives investigators one more clue about the cause of an accident.
There was a focus on important cross-cutting topics, which we briefly outline in the following. CVRs that used solid-state storage can record two hours of audio. Normal acceleration Vertical Pitch 6. While it doubles as a handle for carrying the black box.
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